Logo de la Oficina C

Reports C

Reports C are short documents that draw on extensive literature and expert interviews, and are thoroughly reviewed.

C-Reports outline the regulatory context and gather the available scientific and technological evidence and its implications for a given topic. All reports are published on this website and are licensed under Creative Commons (CC BY 4.0).

The image shows a set of GFP-labelled retinal ganglion cells (in green) and their respective axons, which will continue their journey through the optic nerve to the main visual centres of the brain.
"Constelation". Edition: FOTCIENCIA19. Author: Verónica Murcia-Belmonte.

Incendios © Victoria Arcenegui Baldó

Forest fires and burned area restoration

Spain is one of the countries in the world with the greatest increase in meteorological risk of fires. In 2022, Spain faced one of the most intense wildfire seasons in recent decades. Although fire is a traditionally used element in the country, and the total number of fires is under control, forest fires are becoming increasingly larger. This has social, economic, and ecological impacts. Due to its immense complexity, prevention, suppression, and subsequent management are addressed considering the socio-ecological heterogeneity of the Spanish territory, with a multidisciplinary approach and through specific sectoral policies. Is it possible to optimize our relationship with fire?



Pensando en Plata © Raquel Martín Baquero

Advances in neurodegerative diseases

Neurodegenerative diseases lead to neuronal death, disability, dependence, and, to date, they are incurable, significantly shortening life expectancy. In Spain, these diseases affect between one million and one and a half million people, representing a high personal, social, and economic cost. Additionally, the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) increases with age. In this sense, the rise in life expectancy will result in a significant increase in the number of neurodegenerative disease cases. On the other hand, diseases like Huntington's disease or multiple sclerosis debut in a younger population, presenting their own set of challenges. What is the situation of these diseases in Spain?


Danza de Purkinjes © Daniela Alejandra López Espíndola

Advances in neuroscience: applications and ethical Implications

The current frontier of knowledge in neuroscience is the link between the architecture of the physical brain and consciousness or language usage, functions that define who we are. Neurotechnology and the latest developments in artificial intelligence open the door to better understand the human brain and connect it to computers to improve people's health. However, this is followed by an expectation in the commercial and economic areas due to its potential applications in entertainment, education, security, or defense. This expectation is accompanied by ethical challenges, regulatory options, and legislative approaches that various countries and international organizations are addressing.


Fragmentos de memoria © Gabriel Castilla Cañamero

Disinformation in the digital age

The internet and digital development facilitate multiple advances and economic and social benefits. They also create a new social and informational context that has led to an unprecedented amplification of disinformation and its effects, turning it into a threat to democratic systems. It is a matter of national security that reaches critical levels in situations of great social relevance, such as health crises, armed conflicts, or electoral processes. This report delves into the causes and impacts of the phenomenon, as well as the mechanisms that can help combat it.


Esponja de mar gigante © Adaris María López Marzo

Ageing and well-being

Spain is the third European country with the highest number of elderly individuals. Currently, 20.1% of Spaniards are over 65 years old, and this proportion is expected to increase in the next 20 years. Longevity is an achievement and an opportunity, but it also poses a challenge. On a personal level, the elderly face difficulties such as the loss of personal autonomy, unwanted loneliness, or the digital divide. It also represents a challenge for society, as aging entails an increase in retirement pensions and greater use of healthcare and social services, whose weaknesses were highlighted by the recent pandemic. The goal is not just to live longer, but to age with health and well-being.



Luz física, luz mágica © Roberto Bueno Hernández

Air quality and good practices

The loss of air quality that results from atmospheric pollution is one of the main public health issues in Europe and Spain. Scientific evidence highlights serious impacts on human health, the environment, and the economy that affect the population in an uneven manner. The current regulatory framework aims to reduce atmospheric pollution and its adverse effects. While this is a useful tool, based on available data, it is insufficient to address the intersectional challenges that characterize this issue.


Nuevo ADN © Katherine Waleska Pérez Pinto

Artificial intelligence and health

Digitalization and recent advances in artificial intelligence (AI) have great potential in the health care system. Implementaing the latest breakthroughs in AI could help the national health system by supporting decision-making and administrative management. This Report C examines the readiness of different IA applications in the healthcare area and highlights its challenges (in particular, the access and handling of data), and its social, ethical and regulatory implications.


La guerra contra el cáncer: la resistencia © Cristina Pilar Garrido López

Advances in cancer treatments

Almost 300.000 people are diagnosed with cancer in Spain every year, having a significant personal, social and economic impact. The latest developments in cancer diagnosis and treatment are changing the way we approach the disease.

This Report C offers a comprehensive overview of cancer in the Spanish context.


El tercer elemento © Rafael García Jiménez

Green hydrogen as a fuel

Hydrogen produced by renewable energies plays a key role in the energy transition towards a carbon-free economy in 2050.

This Report C analyses the green hydrogen value chain - production, storage, distribution and end uses - and discusses the implementation challenges for the sector.


Información © José Benito Rodríguez González


This Report C discusses challenges involved in the development of a society that is competitive and technologically advanced, as well as secure and immune to cyber-attacks. This challenge affects connected factories (an attack can paralyse a manufacturing process) as well as everyday objects (wearable appliances), plugged-in (IoT), or sensitive and strategic infrastructures.